It’s Sunday, And It’s Gonna be a Dark and Stormy Night.

Well, the jerk pork tenderloin is marinading in the fridge, the sweet pineapple chutney is simmering, and the sweet potato fries are cooling their jets waiting for the oven to get to temperature. Alas, it’ll be frozen veg tonight. Yup. No shopping this week. The kitty is at an all-time low. Seriously, I needed a bed! Mind you, I still don’t have said bed. So far, I’ve just paid for it!

But you know I didn’t come here to read you my bank statement [which would have been almost as exciting as me reciting, yet again, how I came to be embittered, but later emerged from the bittersweet embitteredness a sweeter man but wiser, having found solace in the fermented grape].

Nope. I came here to stick pins a very much inflated balloon that arrived in the archaeological literature at the end of August. It’s about language and stone artifacts and flint-knapping:

Uomini NT, Meyer GF (2013) Shared Brain Lateralization Patterns in Language and Acheulean Stone Tool Production: A Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Study. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72693. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072693

We present the first-ever study of brain activation that directly compares active Acheulean tool-making and language. Using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), we measured brain . . . hemodynamics . . . in subjects who performed . . . Acheulean stone tool-making . . . We show highly correlated hemodynamics in the initial 10 seconds of task execution.

Which they argue, might well have been the catalyst for language evolution. Wow. When I read that I was blown away. But it’s not what you think. I was blown over by the prodigious amount of air whooshing out of their balloon once I had pierced it with my rapier-sharp mental intelligence-icity, and, I might add, my own, highly evolved, hemodynamics.

[Now, Rob. You shouldn’t be so disparaging of people tryin’ t’ figger stuff out. You did it once. Remember?] [How could I possibly forget?]

I know I’m being bad. As penance, I’ll ditch the new foam bed in favour of a bed of nails upon, because there’s no way in ‘ell I’m gonna give this paper the same credulous treatment that it seems to have received from the media. I know—they’re not scientists: they just report on science. Problem is, people who aren’t scientists—and even people who are, they’re just not palaeoanthropologists—read that stuff and, not knowing any better, buy it.* Then, when the tune changes in the succeeding months and years, we wonder why the public complains about the money spent on research.

*catches breath*

OK. Here’s a diverting little video snippet, Video_S1 from the article, showing one of the participants performing the tasks that were being monitored. The first part is the ‘control’ portion, in which the knapper was asked simply to knock two rocks together, repeatedly. This was to emulate a rock-knocking activity that wouldn’t have required too much thought—the proposition being that such physical activity wouldn’t be sufficient to somehow lead to language. The rest of the video shows our knapper, clearly, thinking out every flake removal, with the thought in mind of arriving at the end point of the process—an Acheulean hand axe. He’s really having to think hard to turn his large flake into a decent Acheulean hand axe. As would you or I. But there’s no guaranteeing that the thing we call the hand axe required so much brain activity.

The problem with such experimentation is that it presumes the ancient bipedal apes were knocking rocks together to create an Acheulean hand axe.

And that, as you prolly know, is something that I simply can’t allow them to get away with. Their experiment and it’s thrilling and important results may, at the end of the day, have been nothing more than a waste of their time, yours, and mine.

Remember? Remember that this thing called a hand axe may well be just a bifacial core that had been reduced only to the point where it looks [a little] like an axe head to your garden variety palaeoanthropologist. Don’t worry, I’m not gonna go into a big explanation at this point. I’ll just put up a few choice images that more or less speak for themselves [well, after I put words in their mouths in earlier posts]. The montage below is one I made to illustrate the enormous variety of these artifacts, both size and shape. It wasn’t possible to portray them all at the same scale. However, in a few of these images there are people parts that do give an idea of the scale. My favourite is the one with several laid out on a table, from a fist-sized one to one that could easily be 500 mm from stem to stern. If this thing they call a hand axe is in fact as variable as these images demonstrate, there was one eff of a lot of lousy flint-knappers in the Lower Palaeolithic.

Uomini and Meyer’s study has, perhaps, captured brain connections that played a role in language evolution. However, until it’s possible to say, unequivocally, that the so-called hand axe was the shape sought from the moment a Lower Palaeolithic bipedal ape started knocking rocks together, this study cannot stand as evidence that making Acheulean artifacts could have played a part in language evolution.

Thank you all for your kind attention. I’ll see you soon.

By the way, the jerk pork and sweet potato fries were delicious, but the warm pineapple chutney was quite forgettable.

* in the sense of definition #5


SA announces new posts on the Subversive Archaeologist‘s facebook page (mirrored on Rob Gargett’s news feed), on Robert H. Gargett‘s page, Rob Gargett‘s twitter account, and his Google+ page. A few of you have already signed up to receive email when I post. Others have subscribed to the blog’s RSS feeds. You can also become a ‘member’ of the blog through Google Friend Connect. Thank you for your continued patronage. You’re the reason I do this.

Chazan’s Amazin’ Tunnel Vision: Truly A Chip Off The Old Block Of Bordes’s Palaeolithic Typology.

This is the story of the Finished Artifact Fallacy (FAF). It’s incessant mission: to infer strange new lithic technologies and new behavioural inferences: to boldly go where no palaeolithic archaeologist has gone before.

“Butchering with small tools: the implications of the Evron Quarry assemblage for the behaviour of Homo erectus,” by Michael Chazan. Antiquity 87:350–367,  2013. 

From “Butchering with small tools: 
the implications of the Evron Quarry 
assemblage for the behaviour of Homo erectus,” 
by Michael Chazan. Antiquity 87:350–367,  2013.

Allright. I know. I’m a Star Trek fan. And it’s probably very geeky to make an analogy between the FAF and the starship Enterprise‘s mission. Sometimes I just can’t help myself!

My paean to Star Trek was inspired by the just-published, peer-reviewed, “Butchering with small tools: the implications of the Evron Quarry assemblage for the behaviour of Homo erectus,” by Michael Chazan. Antiquity 87:350–367,  2013. It may bear the Good Housekeeping Seal, but it is, fundamentally, flawed. The author, together with the Antiquity editors and referees ought to be charged with false and misleading advertising!

The intellectual earthquake that this paper represents cannot be underestimated. From it, we learn that “[s]mall tools are emerging as a common element of the Early Stone Age/Lower Palaeolithic toolkit … . On Oldowan sites, including Omo 57, Omo 123, Wonderwerk Cave and Sterkfontein, flakes under 20mm in maximum dimension [averaging between 22.2 mm and 37.9 mm] are a major component of the assemblage and an intentional product of knapping … ” [emphasis added]. Remember that last phrase. It becomes important further down.

Me, trying to wrap my
brain around this argument.

What’s wrong with me? I should be ecstatic that a palaeolithic archaeologist recognizes the central importance of flakes in the Oldowan and later technologies. But alas, my euphoria is still born. The author adheres to the old school of palaeolithic typology when he classifies some of the chipped stone pieces from Evron Quarry “choppers” and “polyhedrons.” And, in a stunning bit of ‘doublespeak‘ the author  proceeds to re-re-reify the notion of the ‘hand-axe.’ According to Chazan, small flakes predominate at Evron Quarry as an “adaptation of local materials that make poor hand axes.” Translation: Homo erectus was predisposed to make ‘hand axes,’ but couldn’t. So they used flakes by themselves as a substitute for ‘hand axes.’ Those flakes, he argues, “reflect a level of conceptual thought [i.e. “an ingenious improvisation on the part of Homo erectus”] that allowed the occupants of Evron Quarry to solve the problem of how to butcher an elephant using only the material at hand.” 

Almost takes your breath away. Don’t it? Wait a sec. Isn’t the material “at hand” always the only material ‘at hand?’ If those H. erecti were so clever, why didn’t they walk a few kliks and find better material? After all, one of the site’s early excavators declared the assemblage to be an artifactual accumulation of many temporally separate events. If that were true, surely during one of the times the H. erecti were elsewhere, they could have picked up some better material to take back to the quarry. [BTdub, that would be the Lower Palaeolithic equivalent of carrying coals to Newcastle!] Unless… No. Of course! I’ve got it! εὕρηκα! The explanation: at each of the times those bipedal apes left chipped rock on the ground at Evron Quarry, it was because they had just spotted [or caught a whiff of] the rotting carcass of an elephant. And, logically, fearful that the meat would be thoroughly spoiled if they spent time wandering around the countryside looking for the best raw material to make a ‘hand axe’ with which to butcher said carcass, they instead used whatever was ‘at hand.’ Nah. We should just take Michael Chazan’s word for it. Or not.

Do I really think Chazan is asking us to accept such a monumental shortcoming on the part of H. erectus? Evidently. But I’m not sure the author even realizes how badly this looks for an “ingenious” species like H. erectus. Even if that were its only shortcoming this paper would be an “archaeological howler.” But, buried in the data presentation there’s an even more fundamental error in thinking.

As if the author’s effusive praise for the quick-thinking H. erecti wasn’t comic enough when viewed in terms of my [half] facetious scenario, we learn that indeed there are ‘hand axes’ in the Evron assemblage. But these “are all very thick,” and “[u]nfortunately no complete handaxes were found in the excavation” [emphasis mine, SA]. Hmmm. In a minit I’ll be showing you the ‘hand axes’ from the quarry site. There were apparently quite a few, only no “complete” ones came from the three test pits that Chazan used as his sample, which he refers to as “the excavation.”

I’m reading between the lines, here. I’m guessing that Chazan refers to the Evron Quarry ‘hand-axes’ (those shown below) as “thick,” to imply that they haven’t been ‘thinned’ enough. They haven’t been thinned enough, says he, because the local raw material was shite. He’s willing to admit that they’re ‘hand axes,’ all right. But they’re crappy ones. So, if the Evron Quarry ‘hand axes,’ ‘choppers’ and the ‘polyhedrons’ were desired end products, where did all the flakes come from? Surely not from the 1.7% (15/845) of the assemblage that he calls ‘cores!’

It’s like this. Were he to entertain the notion that the ‘choppers,’ ‘polyhedrons’ and ‘hand axes’ were among the ‘cores’ that gave birth to the abundant small flakes, he would also have to consider the possibility that all the other ‘hand axes’ in all the sites, in all the world, are, after all, just cores. And that would naturally lead to the realization—the reality that dare not speak its name—might well be just a fantasy that exists only in the mind of [admittedly a great many] archaeologists. A reified category. In plain English, the ‘hand axe’—the ‘mental template’ supposedly in the mind of its maker, the ‘desired’ end product, the ‘finished’ artifact—is fallacious! Shiver my timbers!

The FAF would be nothing to worry about, were it not that, where the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic are concerned, its perpetuation is a pernicious and persistent obstacle to a better understanding of our origins. [IMHO, of course.] Now, let’s take a closer look at Michael Chazan’s argument. First, though, let’s look at the Evron Quarry ‘hand axes’ that didn’t appear in the author’s “excavation.”

“Butchering with small tools: the implications of the Evron Quarry assemblage for the behaviour of Homo erectus,” by Michael Chazan. Antiquity 87:350–367,  2013. 
When is a ‘hand axe’ not a ‘hand axe?’ When it’s a core, of *cough* course! Remember that I can only imagine the following scenario if you first accept the author’s assertion that these ‘hand axes’ are ugly. So, on we go. If you peruse the above montage, you’ll notice that many of the flake scars on the ‘hand axes’ are on the order of 20 to 30 mm. That, coincidentally, was the range of sizes for site’s entire modified flake assemblage—the assemblage in which things called cores are thin on the ground, to say the least. Now, if one were to use Occam’s Razor, rather than Bordes’s typology, the logical explanation for the origin of said flakes is, most likely, those very ‘hand axes,’ the ‘choppers,’ and the ‘polyhedrons.’ [There is the possibility to apply a bit of hypothesis testing of the empirical kind with respect to my scenario… With only a few hundred pieces of rock, an enterprising archaeologist might try seeing if any of the useful small flakes could be refitted to the block of rock whence it came.]   
Check out the image below. The author calls these “pieces [of rock] … [bits that are] associated with handaxe manufacture” [emphasis added]. Isn’t it odd that, instead of calling them something like ‘hand axe fragments”he chooses to call them [things] “associated with handaxe manufacture?” Why can’t he just call a spade a spade? Why can’t he see that these, too, are cores, not quasi ‘hand axes’ bits? He has told us that the numerous flakes themselves were ” … an intentional product of knapping … .” Where does that leave the ‘hand axes?’ The author’s answer is that they simply weren’t there in the numbers that should be expected in a Lower Palaeolithic elephant butchering theatre. So, now, on the one hand we have the ‘hand axes,’ which are the desired end product of the H. erectus brain, and on the other hand we have the small, useful flakes. Here’s where it gets really tricky, philosophically speaking. Are the flakes really debitage? Or are the ‘hand axes,’ ‘choppers,’ and ‘polyhedrons’ just cores? 
“Butchering with small tools: the implications of the Evron Quarry assemblage for the behaviour of Homo erectus,” by Michael Chazan. Antiquity 87:350–367,  2013. 
I’m not singling Michael Chazan out for punishment. He’s not alone in trying to ascertain how many bipedal apes can dance on the distal extremity of a ‘hand axe.’ Inevitably, by cleaving to the FAF, they’ll buy themselves “a ticket to obscurity” [excerpted from Famous Last Words of the Subversive Archaeologist, Vanity Press International, 2013]. I have to ask, “Has every archaeologist on the planet drunk the Bordesian typological Kool-Aid?” 
Source: Comme on dit en France, “Divine.”

And speaking of drinking. When I started to write this blurt it was last Friday afternoon. I took a moment to plug a very decent $5 sparkling wine that Trader Joe’s carries, and which I was, at the time, drinking. It’s officially called Trader Joe’s Blanc de Blancs Brut, and it’s very colourful on the tongue. It’s imported from France [so it must be good], and this grassy, pale beauty is every bit the peer of Freixenet, which at one time you could buy for $5, but which has suffered the fate of popularity, and had the price elevated due the disparity between supply and demand. [You know? I’ve always mistrusted the notion of supply and demand as the being the natural force determining value. It’s too easy, don’t you think, to consciously reduce output so as to encourage higher prices. The oil companies do it by limiting the number of refineries. OPEC does it by turning the well spigot a quarter turn to the right. Is it too far-fetched to think that wineries might do the same, even in the absence of demand in excess of production?

On the other hand, maybe drinking too much can engender conspiracy theories.

I look forward to seeing you next time. Thanks for visiting!


SA announces new posts on the Subversive Archaeologist‘s facebook page (mirrored on Rob Gargett’s news feed), on Robert H. Gargett‘s page, Rob Gargett‘s twitter account, and his Google+ page. A few of you have already signed up to receive email when I post. Others have subscribed to the blog’s RSS feeds. You can also become a ‘member’ of the blog through Google Friend Connect. Thank you for your continued patronage. You’re the reason I do this.